JNBS
Üsküdar Üniversitesi

ARTICLES

Original Article

Construction of western aphasia battery in nepali: a pilot study

Turkish Title : Nepalı’da batı aphasia batarya yapımı: bir pilot çalışması

Shah Jyoti,Karna Sureshwar Lal,Verma Himanshu
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:47-51

Present study aims to construct the Western Aphasia Battery in Nepali language. Subjects for this study were 10 Nepali speaking adults in age range of 30 and above, out of which five were healthy and five were aphasics. The cortical quotient (CQ) was not included in the present study as many of our population were illiterate and examining them on the tests of reading and writing was not possible. The current study clearly shows that aphasic patients can be identified and classified into the types of aphasia and also severity of the language deficits can be obtained in terms of the AQ, by using Nepali WAB. The test gives detailed information about oral language abilities which further provides the baseline for therapy plan and recovery.

Present study aims to construct the Western Aphasia Battery in Nepali language. Subjects for this study were 10 Nepali speaking adults in age range of 30 and above, out of which five were healthy and five were aphasics. The cortical quotient (CQ) was not included in the present study as many of our population were illiterate and examining them on the tests of reading and writing was not possible. The current study clearly shows that aphasic patients can be identified and classified into the types of aphasia and also severity of the language deficits can be obtained in terms of the AQ, by using Nepali WAB. The test gives detailed information about oral language abilities which further provides the baseline for therapy plan and recovery.


Original Article

Comparison of alexithymia level differences associated with obsessive compulsive disorder patients and healthy people

Turkish Title : Obsesif kompulsif bozukluğa sahip hastalar ile sağlıklı bireyler arasındaki aleksitimi düzey farklılıklarının karşılaştırılması

Uslu Umay,Erensoy Habib,Meterelliyoz Kumru Şenyaşar,Aytaç Hasan Mervan,Berkol Tonguç Demir
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:52-59

In this study, we compared the levels of alexithymia in healthy individuals with OCD patients and investigated whether there is a significant difference between them. Furthermore, some of the sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects were also examined to determine whether they had an effect on OCD and alexithymia levels. 40 volunteer OCD patients, 25 of whom were women and 15 men, aged 18-45 years, who were diagnosed at the NP Feneryolu Medical Center of Üsküdar University, Istanbul, and who were randomly selected and living in Istanbul, 40 volunteer healthy individuals, 25 of whom are women and 15 of whom are men and whose ages are between 18 and 45, are attended to this study. Participants were first informed about the privacy of work and personal information. “Sociodemographic Data Form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Symptom List (Y-BOCS)” were applied to all 80 participants in order to collect the data obtained in the study. The data obtained from these scales were subjected to statistical analysis with the SSPS v.21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) program. The normality distribution of continuous variables was evaluated according to the occurrence of Skewness-Kurtosis values in the range of -1.5 and +1.5. An independent sample t-test was conducted to compare the scores of healthy controls and OCD patients. Independent sample Mann Whintey U test was performed among the groups in terms of demographic variables. Correlation values between the scores obtained from the scales were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis because the scores were normally distributed. According to the results of this study; a significant difference was found between the levels of alexithymia of healthy individu als and OCD patients. The levels of alexithymia in OCD patients were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals. Apart from this, there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty describing feelings scores of OCD patients and the their difficulty identifying feelings scores of the TAS-20 subscales. In addition, a number of suggestions have been added in order to make contribution to the literature of this research which is also included in similar studies. 

Çalışmamızda OKB hastaları ile sağlıklı bireylerin aleksitimi düzeyleri karşılaştırılıp aralarında anlamlı bir fark olup olmadığı incelenmiştir. Bununla birlikte kişilerin bazı sosyodemografik özelliklerinin de OKB ve aleksitimi düzeyleri üzerinde etkili olup olmadığı araştırılmıştır. Çalışmaya, İstanbul ilindeki Üsküdar Üniversitesi NP Feneryolu Tıp Merkezi’nde tanı almış ve tedavileri halen devam eden, yaşları 18-45 aralığında olan 25’i kadın 15’i erkek olmak üzere 40 gönüllü OKB hastası ile İstanbul ilinde yaşayan rastgele seçilmiş, herhangi bir psikiyatrik tanısı bulunmayan, yaşları 18-45 aralığında olan 25’i kadın 15’i erkek olmak üzere 40 gönüllü sağlıklı birey katılmıştır. Katılımcılar öncelikle çalışma ve kişisel bilgilerin gizliliği konusunda bilgilendirilmiştir. Araştırmada elde edilecek verileri toplamak amacıyla, 80 katılımcıya, “Sosyodemografik Veri Formu, Toronto Aleksitimi Ölçeği (TAÖ-20) ve Yale-Brown Obsesyon Kompulsiyon Ölçeği ve Semptom Listesi (Y-BOCS)” uygulanmıştır. Bu ölçeklerden elde edilen veriler ise SSPS v.21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) programı ile istatistiksel analize tabi tutulmuştur. Sürekli değişkenlerin normallik dağılımı Skewness-Kurtosis değerlerinin -1.5 ve +1.5 aralığında oluşuna göre değerlendirilmiştir. OKB tanılı hastalarla sağlıklı kontrollerin ölçeklerden aldıkları puanların karşılaştırılmasında bağımsız örneklem t testi yürütülmüştür. Sosyodemografik değişkenler bakımından yürütülen gruplar arası karşılaştırmalarda bağımsız örneklem Mann Whintey U testi yürütülmüştür. Ölçeklerden alınan puanlar arasındaki korelasyon değerleri ise puanların normal dağılıyor olması nedeniyle Pearson korelasyon analizi ile yürütülmüştür. Yapılan çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre; OKB hastalarının aleksitimi düzeyleri sağlıklı bireylerin aleksitimi düzeylerine göre anlamlı bir biçimde daha yüksek bulunmuştur. OKB hastalarının TAÖ-20’nin alt boyutları olan duygu ifadesinde zorluk puanları ile duygu tanımlamada zorluk puanları arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişki bulunmuştur. 


Original Article

Effects of highbush cranberry ( viburnum opulus ) on hyperglycemıa and oxidative damage in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Turkish Title : Effects of highbush cranberry ( viburnum opulus ) on hyperglycemıa and oxidative damage in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Taşkıran Ali,Kaşıkçı Emel Serdaroğlu,Şahin Korkut Furkan,Çevreli Burcu,Gözler Tayfun,Konuk Muhsin
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:60-64

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of highbush cranberry ( Viburnum opulus , GILA) fruit extract on blood glucose levels and kidney tissue homogenates of diabetes-modeled rats by injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). Blood glucose levels of rats were measured in tail blood using a glucose meter. Glucose determination was done 48 hours after STZ injection. For this, 32 Wistar albino rats were employed. The rats were divided into 4 groups; Control, STZ, STZ+GILA, and GILA with containing 8 animals each. After 12 weeks, they were sacrificed. During the study periods, blood glucose levels were measured periodically and kidney tissue parameters were measured in their homogenates after sacrificing the rats. The measured parameters were Glutathion (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS). The results obtained from the study were analyzed by using SPSS for Windows software, and p<0.05 was assigned as statistically significant value. The findings of the study showed that GILA consumption could help diabetic people to prevent possible nephropathy due to its potent antioxidant features. 

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of highbush cranberry ( Viburnum opulus , GILA) fruit extract on blood glucose levels and kidney tissue homogenates of diabetes-modeled rats by injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). Blood glucose levels of rats were measured in tail blood using a glucose meter. Glucose determination was done 48 hours after STZ injection. For this, 32 Wistar albino rats were employed. The rats were divided into 4 groups; Control, STZ, STZ+GILA, and GILA with containing 8 animals each. After 12 weeks, they were sacrificed. During the study periods, blood glucose levels were measured periodically and kidney tissue parameters were measured in their homogenates after sacrificing the rats. The measured parameters were Glutathion (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS). The results obtained from the study were analyzed by using SPSS for Windows software, and p<0.05 was assigned as statistically significant value. The findings of the study showed that GILA consumption could help diabetic people to prevent possible nephropathy due to its potent antioxidant features. 


Original Article

Determination of SLC6A4 promoter L/S polymorphism in professional volleyball players and comparison of the literature

Turkish Title : Profesyonel voleybolcularda slc6a4 promotör l/s polimorfizminin belirlenmesi ve literatür karşılaştırılması

Yiğit Selin,Polat Tolga,Doğan Canan Sercan,Tunalı Seçil,Ekmekçi Rıdvan,Ulucan Korkut
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:65-69

We aimed to determine the genotype and allele distributions of the serotonin transporter protein gene (SLC6A4) promoter L/S polymorphism in volleyball players and compare it with the previous studies in the literature in this study. For this purpose, 21 volleyball players participated in our study. Genotyping was performed by PCR after DNAs were isolated from buccal cells. The literature review has been done in Google Scholar and PUBMED databases with the keywords and combinations of “sports, athletes, genetics, SLC6A4, sports genetics, polymorphism”. In our cohort, LL, LS and SS genotypes were found in numbers and percentages as 10 (48%), 7 (33%) and 4 (19%), respectively. The respective L and S allele count numbers and percentages were 27 (64%) and 15 (36%). 9 different studies matched our criteria and compared with our findings with literature review. As a result, the low percentage of SS genotype in terms of genotype distribution was common with the previous studies and our findings. The S allele percentage was higher than our results just in one research. Recent studies have shown that the “S” allele is associated with anxiety. Our study was the first report to show that the LL genotype and L allele in volleyball players are higher than the SS genotype and S allele.

Çalışmamızda, voleybolcularda serotonin taşıyıcı protein geni (SLC6A4) promotör L/S polimorfizminin genotip ve allel dağılımlarını belirlemeyi ve literatürde bulunan önceki çalışmalar ile karşılaştırmayı hedefledik. Bu amaçla çalışmamıza 21 voleybolcu katıldı. Genotipleme işlemi, yanak içi epitel hücrelerinden DNA elde edildikten sonra PCR ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Literatür taraması Google Akademik ve PUBMED veri tabanlarında “spor, sporcu, genetik, SLC6A4, spor genetiği, polimorfizm” anahtar kelimeler ve kombinasyonları ile yapılmıştır. Kohortumuzda LL, LS ve SS genotipleri sayı ve yüzde olarak sırasıyla 10 (%48), 7 (%33) ve 4 (%19) olarak bulundu. L ve S allel sayı ve yüzdeleri ise sırasıyla 27 (%64) ve 15 (%36) olarak bulunmuştur. Yapılan literatür araması ile 9 farklı çalışma kriterlerimize uygun bulunmuş ve bulgularımız ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, genotip dağılımı açısından SS genotipinin yüzdece düşük olması, diğer çalışmalar ve bizim bulgularımız ile ortaktır. Sadece bir çalışmada S alleli yüzdece daha fazla bulunmuştur. Son dönemlerde yapılan çalışmalar “S” allelinin anksiyete ile ilişkilendirildiğini göstermiştir. Çalışmamız, voleybolculardaki LL genotip ve L allelinin, SS genotip ve S allelinden yüzdece daha yüksek olduğunu gösteren ilk rapordur. 


Original Article

Exposure to aflatoxin and aggressive behavior among wistar albino rats

Turkish Title : Exposure to aflatoxin and aggressive behavior among wistar albino rats

Ishola Ajibola Abdulrahamon
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:70-77

The exposition of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in aggression-intruding behavior in Wistar rat were assessed. Rodents in the experimental group (Group A, n= 6) were orally infused with AFB diluted in dimethylsulfoxide administered 0.3mg/kg/day on days 1 12. Controls received distilled water similarly on days 1-12 days (Group B). For the observation, an intruder was introduced into the cage containing the residents who are experimental rats treated with Aflatoxin and rats in the control treated with distilled water. Records of observations of territorial aggressive behaviours exhibited by the experimental and control rats towards the inntruder were recorded. Each rat was given 3 trials of 5 minutes each. The study utilized the Randomized Blocked TwoWay ANOVA (factors time line × treatment) followed by a post-hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction to analyse the data and Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results demonstrated that exposure to Aflatoxin significantly influenced aggressive behaviour among Wistar rats F (1,322) = 29.89, p < 0.001, η2= .09. Aflatoxin-treated animals significantly exhibited more aggressive behaviour than animals treated with distilled water (Bonferonni= 4.04, p<.001). Exposure time to Aflatoxin interacted with treatment to significantly influence aggressive behaviour among Wistar rats F (1,322) = 3.26, p < 0.001, η2= .10. Mean comparison reveals that there was no significant difference in aggressive behaviour of Aflatoxin treated and the distilled water treated rats from day 1-7. However, significant differences was observed from the 8th day onward to the 12th day. Aggressive behaviour increased by 10% as the chronic exposure increase more than seven days. It was concluded that aflatoxin induced toxicity in rodents influenced aggression as it exacerbates neuro-cognitive decline and brain bio-chemicals distortions leading to aggression behavior. 

The exposition of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in aggression-intruding behavior in Wistar rat were assessed. Rodents in the experimental group (Group A, n= 6) were orally infused with AFB diluted in dimethylsulfoxide administered 0.3mg/kg/day on days 1 12. Controls received distilled water similarly on days 1-12 days (Group B). For the observation, an intruder was introduced into the cage containing the residents who are experimental rats treated with Aflatoxin and rats in the control treated with distilled water. Records of observations of territorial aggressive behaviours exhibited by the experimental and control rats towards the inntruder were recorded. Each rat was given 3 trials of 5 minutes each. The study utilized the Randomized Blocked TwoWay ANOVA (factors time line × treatment) followed by a post-hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction to analyse the data and Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results demonstrated that exposure to Aflatoxin significantly influenced aggressive behaviour among Wistar rats F (1,322) = 29.89, p < 0.001, η2= .09. Aflatoxin-treated animals significantly exhibited more aggressive behaviour than animals treated with distilled water (Bonferonni= 4.04, p<.001). Exposure time to Aflatoxin interacted with treatment to significantly influence aggressive behaviour among Wistar rats F (1,322) = 3.26, p < 0.001, η2= .10. Mean comparison reveals that there was no significant difference in aggressive behaviour of Aflatoxin treated and the distilled water treated rats from day 1-7. However, significant differences was observed from the 8th day onward to the 12th day. Aggressive behaviour increased by 10% as the chronic exposure increase more than seven days. It was concluded that aflatoxin induced toxicity in rodents influenced aggression as it exacerbates neuro-cognitive decline and brain bio-chemicals distortions leading to aggression behavior. 


Original Article

Familial liability and age of onset among patients with major mental illness

Turkish Title : Familial liability and age of onset among patients with major mental illness

Obadeji Adetunji,Oluwole Lateef Olutoyin,Piwuna Christopher Goson
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:78-83

Familial liability or susceptibility has been shown to increase the risk for psychotic disorders, however, little is known about familial liability (FL) among patients with major psychiatric disorders in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the rate of FL and factors influencing the age of onset among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. This was a cross-sectional survey of patients with either diagnosis of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia based on ICD-10 criteria. Data were collected through a pretested socio-demographic questionnaire, incorporating age, duration of illness, the onset of illness, and family history (FH) of mental illness. Data were presented as tables, charts and bivariate analysis was performed to determine the relationship between variables. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05.  Of the 235 participants, 66 (28.1%) had a FH of mental illness. The age of onset ranges from 12-70years with a mean of 30.1years (SD=11.1years) and majority 85 (36.2%), were within the age group 30-39 years and had developed the illness before the age of 30years (54.5%). The males were twice more likely to developed mental illness before the age of 30 compared with their female counterparts [OR=2.42, (CI = 1.40-4.25), (p=0.013)], likewise, the singles compared with the ever-married  [OR=4.24, (CI=2.45-7.34), (p=0.000)]. Although nearly a third of the participants had a FL to mental illness, there was no association between age of onset and FH of mental illness. However, the males and the singles were more likely to have developed mental illness at an earlier age compared with their counterparts. 

Familial liability or susceptibility has been shown to increase the risk for psychotic disorders, however, little is known about familial liability (FL) among patients with major psychiatric disorders in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the rate of FL and factors influencing the age of onset among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. This was a cross-sectional survey of patients with either diagnosis of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia based on ICD-10 criteria. Data were collected through a pretested socio-demographic questionnaire, incorporating age, duration of illness, the onset of illness, and family history (FH) of mental illness. Data were presented as tables, charts and bivariate analysis was performed to determine the relationship between variables. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05.  Of the 235 participants, 66 (28.1%) had a FH of mental illness. The age of onset ranges from 12-70years with a mean of 30.1years (SD=11.1years) and majority 85 (36.2%), were within the age group 30-39 years and had developed the illness before the age of 30years (54.5%). The males were twice more likely to developed mental illness before the age of 30 compared with their female counterparts [OR=2.42, (CI = 1.40-4.25), (p=0.013)], likewise, the singles compared with the ever-married  [OR=4.24, (CI=2.45-7.34), (p=0.000)]. Although nearly a third of the participants had a FL to mental illness, there was no association between age of onset and FH of mental illness. However, the males and the singles were more likely to have developed mental illness at an earlier age compared with their counterparts.


Original Article

Anxiety sensitivity and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms in patients with panic disorder and their first degree relatives

Turkish Title : Panik bozukluğu hastalarında ve birinci derece yakınlarında anksiyete duyarlılığı ve panik agorafobi spektrumu belirtileri

Bulut Hüseyin,Uluğ Berna
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:84-89

The aim of the study was to investigate and compare anxiety sensitivity measurements and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms in patients diagnosed with panic disorder and in their first degree relatives. Eighty patients who were on followup or recently diagnosed as panic disorder in a university faculty of medicine psychiatry department and their first degree relatives (80 siblings) were included after clinical evaluation. The patients were assessed with socio-demographic information form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Panic-Agoraphobic Scale (PAS) and Lifetime Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Self Report (PAS-SR lifetime); and their siblings were assessed with socio-demographic information form, SCID-1, ASI, STAI, BDI, and PAS-SR lifetime. According to the results of the study, it was determined that the ASI scores of the patients were statistically significantly higher than the scores of their siblings (p<0.01). In addition, patients scored significantly higher on the PAS-SR lifetime scale than siblings (p<0.01). Inclusion of BDI scores in covariant analysis has made no change in the difference among study groups in level of anxiety sensitivity and degree of panic agoraphobic spectrum. As a conclusion, in this study, it was found that anxiety sensitivity and spectrum symptoms, which are two variables investigated as endophenotypic features in the first degree relatives in the panic disorder, differ from the patient group in terms of severity and frequency.

Bu araştırmada panik bozukluğu tanısı konan hastalarda ve birinci derece yakınlarında anksiyete duyarlılığı ölçümlerinin ve panik-agorafobi spektrumu belirtilerinin incelenmesi ve karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Bir üniversite tıp fakültesi hastanesi psikiyatri polikliniğinde panik bozukluğu tanısı konulan veya bu tanı ile izlenmekte olan 80 hasta ile bu hastaların birinci derece yakınları (80 hasta kardeşi) klinik değerlendirme sonrası çalışma kapsamına alınmışlardır. Hastalara sosyodemografik bilgi formu, DSM-IV Eksen I Bozuklukları İçin Yapılandırılmış Klinik Görüşme (SCID-1), Anksiyete Duyarlılık Ölçeği (ADÖ), Durumluk-Sürekli Kaygı Ölçeği (DSKÖ), Beck Depresyon Ölçeği (BDÖ), Panik-Agorafobi Ölçeği (PAÖ) ve Yaşamboyu Panik-Agorafobi Spektrumu Ölçeği (PASÖ-YB); kardeşlerine ise sosyo-demografik bilgi formu, SCID-1, ADÖ, DSKÖ, BDÖ, PASÖ-YB uygulanmıştır. Yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucunda, hastaların ADÖ puanlarının, kardeşlerinin puanlarından, istatistiksel olarak anlamı şekilde yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır (p<0.01). Ayrıca hastalar PASÖ YB ölçeğinden kardeşlere göre anlamlı derecede yüksek puan almışlardır (p<0.01). BDÖ puanı kovaryant olarak analize alındığında anksiyete duyarlılığı ve panik-agorafobi spektrumu belirtilerini gösterme açısından farklılık kaybolmamaktadır. Sonuç olarak panik bozukluğunda, birinci derece hasta yakınlarında endofenotipik özellikler olarak araştırılmış olan iki değişken olan anksiyete duyarlılığı ve spektrum belirtilerinin şiddet ve sıklık bakımından hasta grubundan farklı olduğu saptanmıştır. 


Review Article

Investigating the neuroplastic effects of treatment methods applied in cerebral palsy

Turkish Title : Serebral palsi’de uygulanan tedavi yöntemlerinin nöroplastisite etkilerinin incelendiği çalışmalar

Karakuş Arzu Burcu,Metin Barış
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:90-97

Cerebral Palsy (SP), formed as a result of lesions in the developing brain, has been one of the main areas of interest in pediatric physiotherapy. There are many researches and reviews about the physical and social consequences of the therapy methods used in daily life. In this review, electronic databases were scanned in PUBMED and Web of Science to examine the publications investigating the neuroplastic effects that are the equivalent of the rehabilitation applied in the brain. In a limited number of publications about research on this subject, all of the results are evidence to prove that neuroplasticity developed as a result of rehabilitation. In this review, the methods used to measure neuroplasticity are briefly mentioned and it is aimed to shed more light on one of the subjects in need of investigation. 

Gelişmekte olan beyindeki lezyonlar sonucu oluşan Serebral Palsi (SP), pediatrik fizyoterapinin ana ilgi alanlarından biri olmuştur. Uygulanan terapi yöntemlerinin günlük hayattaki bedensel ve sosyal sonuçlarını içeren pek çok araştırma ve derleme mevcuttur. Bu derlemede, uygulanan rehabilitasyonun beyinlerdeki karşılığı olan nöroplastik etkileri araştıran yayınları incelemek için elektronik veri tabanları PUBMED ve Web of Science içerisinde tarama yapılmıştır. Bu konudaki araştırmalarla ilgili ulaşılan sınırlı sayıdaki yayında, sonuçların hepsi rehabilitasyon sonucu nöroplastisitenin geliştiğini delillendirir niteliktedir. Bu derlemede, nöroplastisiteyi ölçmek için kullanılan yöntemlere de kısaca değinilmiş ve araştırılmaya muhtaç konulardan birine daha ışık tutmak hedeflenmiştir.


Letter to Editor

A novel treatment option for autism spectrum disorder: vasopressin receptor antagonists

Turkish Title : A novel treatment option for autism spectrum disorder: vasopressin receptor antagonists

Çöpür Mazlum,Çöpür Sidar
JNBS, 2020, 7(2), p:98-100

Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disability affecting 1 in every 59 newborns and causes significant morbidity while exact pathophysiology is unclear. Recent hypothesis includes vasopressin in patients with ASD while vasopressin receptor antagonists including balovaptan appears to be promising option for treatment especially in ASD patients with high functionality. In this study, our aim is to describe recent developments in vasopressin receptor antagonists involving ASD treatment which have potential for future clinical implementation.

Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disability affecting 1 in every 59 newborns and causes significant morbidity while exact pathophysiology is unclear. Recent hypothesis includes vasopressin in patients with ASD while vasopressin receptor antagonists including balovaptan appears to be promising option for treatment especially in ASD patients with high functionality. In this study, our aim is to describe recent developments in vasopressin receptor antagonists involving ASD treatment which have potential for future clinical implementation.


ISSN (Print) 2149-1909
ISSN (Online) 2148-4325

2020 Ağustos ayından itibaren yalnızca İngilizce yayın kabul edilmektedir.